Equine bone blocks have osteogenic effects promoting bone regeneration with biocompatibility and osteoconductivity capacity. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts enhancing biomineralization with such scaffolds. Melatonin is able to improve bone health and mediate bone formation. Collagenated equine bone blocks were coated with ammonia-functionalized graphene-oxide (G-N) at two different concentrations (2 μg/mL, G-N2; and 10 μg/mL, G-N10). The homogeneity of G-N coating was checked by Raman spectroscopy, whereas thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) allowed us to quantify the amount of G-N deposited on the blocks. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of G-N-coated collagenated equine bone blocks on the proliferation and differentiation of hDPSCs with the addition of a melatonin. This evaluation was determined after 7, 14, and 21 days of culture by the expression of specific microRNAs, RUNX2 and SMAD5 gene expression, osteocalcin levels, and histological analysis. The results showed that equine blocks G-N2 and G-N10 and melatonin gave an optimal cell adhesion as shown by histological analysis, and an increase in the hDPSCs osteogenic potential as confirmed by microRNA and gene expression with an increase in osteocalcin levels. This study suggests that equine bone blocks coated with G-N2 and G-N10 and melatonin promote the osteogenic process.