Over the past ten years, the global biopharmaceutical market has remarkably grown, with ten over the top twenty worldwide high performance medical treatment sales being biologics. Thus, biotech R&D (research and development) sector is becoming a key leading branch, with expanding revenues. Biotechnology offers considerable advantages compared to traditional therapeutic approaches, such as reducing side effects, specific treatments, higher patient compliance and therefore more effective treatments leading to lower healthcare costs. Within this sector, smart nanotechnology and colloidal self-assembling systems represent pivotal tools able to modulate the delivery of therapeutics. A comprehensive understanding of the processes involved in the selfassembly of the colloidal structures discussed therein is essential for the development of relevant biomedical applications.